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What is Git?
Git is a free and open source distributed version control system designed to handle everything from small to very large projects with speed and efficiency. Git is easy to learn and has a tiny footprint with lightning fast performance. It outclasses SCM tools like Subversion, CVS, Perforce, and ClearCase with features like cheap local branching, convenient staging areas, and multiple workflows.
What’s New on Git 2.12.2?
Fixes since v2.12.1
* "git status --porcelain" is supposed to give a stable output, but a
few strings were left as translatable by mistake.
* "Dumb http" transport used to misparse a nonsense http-alternates
response, which has been fixed.
* "git diff --quiet" relies on the size field in diff_filespec to be
correctly populated, but diff_populate_filespec() helper function
made an incorrect short-cut when asked only to populate the size
field for paths that need to go through convert_to_git() (e.g. CRLF
* There is no need for Python only to give a few messages to the
standard error stream, but we somehow did.
* A leak in a codepath to read from a packed object in (rare) cases
has been plugged.
* "git upload-pack", which is a counter-part of "git fetch", did not
report a request for a ref that was not advertised as invalid.
This is generally not a problem (because "git fetch" will stop
before making such a request), but is the right thing to do.
* A "gc.log" file left by a backgrounded "gc --auto" disables further
automatic gc; it has been taught to run at least once a day (by
default) by ignoring a stale "gc.log" file that is too old.
* "git remote rm X", when a branch has remote X configured as the
value of its branch.*.remote, tried to remove branch.*.remote and
branch.*.merge and failed if either is unset.
* A caller of tempfile API that uses stdio interface to write to
files may ignore errors while writing, which is detected when
tempfile is closed (with a call to ferror()). By that time, the
original errno that may have told us what went wrong is likely to
be long gone and was overwritten by an irrelevant value.
close_tempfile() now resets errno to EIO to make errno at least
* "git show-branch" expected there were only very short branch names
in the repository and used a fixed-length buffer to hold them
without checking for overflow.
* The code that parses header fields in the commit object has been
updated for (micro)performance and code hygiene.
* A test that creates a confusing branch whose name is HEAD has been
corrected not to do so.
* "Cc:" on the trailer part does not have to conform to RFC strictly,
unlike in the e-mail header. "git send-email" has been updated to
ignore anything after '>' when picking addresses, to allow non-address
cruft like " # stable 4.4" after the address.
* "git push" had a handful of codepaths that could lead to a deadlock
when unexpected error happened, which has been fixed.
* Code to read submodule.<name>.ignore config did not state the
variable name correctly when giving an error message diagnosing
* "git ls-remote" and "git archive --remote" are designed to work
without being in a directory under Git's control. However, recent
updates revealed that we randomly look into a directory called
.git/ without actually doing necessary set-up when working in a
repository. Stop doing so.
* The code to parse the command line "git grep <patterns>... <rev>
[[--] <pathspec>...]" has been cleaned up, and a handful of bugs
have been fixed (e.g. we used to check "--" if it is a rev).
* The code to parse "git -c VAR=VAL cmd" and set configuration
variable for the duration of cmd had two small bugs, which have
This supersedes jc/config-case-cmdline topic that has been discarded.
Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
Branching and Merging
The Git feature that really makes it stand apart from nearly every other SCM out there is its branching model.
Git allows and encourages you to have multiple local branches that can be entirely independent of each other. The creation, merging, and deletion of those lines of development takes seconds.
This means that you can do things like:
- Frictionless Context Switching. Create a branch to try out an idea, commit a few times, switch back to where you branched from, apply a patch, switch back to where you are experimenting, and merge it in.
- Role-Based Codelines. Have a branch that always contains only what goes to production, another that you merge work into for testing, and several smaller ones for day to day work.
- Feature Based Workflow. Create new branches for each new feature you’re working on so you can seamlessly switch back and forth between them, then delete each branch when that feature gets merged into your main line.
- Disposable Experimentation. Create a branch to experiment in, realize it’s not going to work, and just delete it – abandoning the work—with nobody else ever seeing it (even if you’ve pushed other branches in the meantime).
Small and Fast
Git is fast. With Git, nearly all operations are performed locally, giving it a huge speed advantage on centralized systems that constantly have to communicate with a server somewhere.
Git was built to work on the Linux kernel, meaning that it has had to effectively handle large repositories from day one. Git is written in C, reducing the overhead of runtimes associated with higher-level languages. Speed and performance has been a primary design goal of the Git from the start.
Let’s see how common operations stack up against Subversion, a common centralized version control system that is similar to CVS or Perforce. Smaller is faster.
One of the nicest features of any Distributed SCM, Git included, is that it’s distributed. This means that instead of doing a “checkout” of the current tip of the source code, you do a “clone” of the entire repository.
This means that even if you’re using a centralized workflow, every user essentially has a full backup of the main server. Each of these copies could be pushed up to replace the main server in the event of a crash or corruption. In effect, there is no single point of failure with Git unless there is only a single copy of the repository.
Because of Git’s distributed nature and superb branching system, an almost endless number of workflows can be implemented with relative ease.
A centralized workflow is very common, especially from people transitioning from a centralized system. Git will not allow you to push if someone has pushed since the last time you fetched, so a centralized model where all developers push to the same server works just fine.
The data model that Git uses ensures the cryptographic integrity of every bit of your project. Every file and commit is checksummed and retrieved by its checksum when checked back out. It’s impossible to get anything out of Git other than the exact bits you put in.
Unlike the other systems, Git has something called the “staging area” or “index”. This is an intermediate area where commits can be formatted and reviewed before completing the commit.
One thing that sets Git apart from other tools is that it’s possible to quickly stage some of your files and commit them without committing all of the other modified files in your working directory or having to list them on the command line during the commit.
Free and Open Source
Git is released under the GNU General Public License version 2.0, which is an open source license. The Git project chose to use GPLv2 to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software—to make sure the software is free for all its users.
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